With one exception, all of the common silicate minerals break down, during weathering, into tiny particles of clay. Clay is actually a silicate mineral in its own right, a kind of chemical residue of oxygen, silicon, aluminum, and water.
The exceptional silicate is quartz. Quartz is composed of oxygen and silicon atoms only, bound together in a tough 3-D framework that mimics the crystal structure of diamond. As rocks containing quartz disintegrate, the resistant bits of quartz are released, practically untouched, to form sand.
Silt (extremely fine quartz sand) and clay together make up what we commonly call mud. Both of these clastic sediments are easily suspended in moving water and can be carried far offshore in lakes and seas. Deposits of mud settling out of quiet water are widespread.
Now, particles of clay are vanishingly small, and they are shaped like plates or leaves. Imagine tossing a deck of playing cards high into the air. As they settle to the ground, the cards will lay flat, interleaved with one another. If they get damp, they will stick together firmly. Clay-rich clastic sediment that has settled out of quiet water behaves much the same way. It clumps together, but it can be split between the leaves, especially after it compacts into soft rock.
Abandoned and buried accumulations of sand consolidate into sandstone, as the grains of sand are cemented together with films of mineral matter. If the cement is silica from the quartz grains themselves, the resulting rock will be very strong. Other common cements, like calcium carbonate, which is soluble in water, yield a weaker rock. Sandstones cemented with iron oxide minerals are warmly colored in shades of red, orange, and yellow.